مروری بر اثرات تمرین تناوبی با شدت بالا بر هورمون‌های مرتبط با چاقی

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، موسسه آموزش عالی غیرانتفاعی خاوران،‌ مشهد، ایران

2 گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: ﭼﺎﻗﯽ ﯾﮑﯽ از ﻣﺸﮑﻼت ﺳﻼﻣﺘﯽ ﺣﺎل ﺣﺎﺿﺮ دﻧﯿـﺎ ﺑﻮده و ﺷﯿﻮع آن در ﺣﺎل ﮔﺴﺘﺮش می­باشد. در ﺳﺎل­ﻫﺎی اﺧﻴﺮ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺴﺘﺮش ﭼﺎﻗﻲ و ﻋﻮارض سوخت و سازی ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از ﭼﺎقی، ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ زﻳﺎدی ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ. اﻣﺮوزه ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ به ﻋﻨﻮان بافتی ﺳﺎﻛﻦ و ﺻﺮﻓاً ذﺧﻴﺮه کنندۀ اﻧﺮژی در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﻤﻲ­ﺷﻮد، ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻟﺤﺎظ سوخت و سازی، ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻲ ﻓﻌﺎل اﺳﺖ. ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻏﺪد، ﺑﺎفت­ﻫﺎی سوخت و سازی، عوامل ﺗﺮﺷﺤﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ را ﺗﺮﺷﺢ میﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮدﻫﺎی اﺗﻮکراین، ﭘﺎراکراین و اﻧﺪوﻛﺮاﻳﻦ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤیط خارج سلولی، دارند. ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻣﺤﯿﻄﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ رژﯾﻢ ﻏﺬاﯾﯽ، فعالیت ﺟﺴﻤانی، وﺿﻌﯿﺖ سوخت و سازی از ﻋﻠﻞ اﺻلی اﺿﺎﻓﻪ وزن و چاقی ﻣﺤﺴﻮب ﻣﯽ­ﺷﻮند و ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺑﻪ ﺧﻮد ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﯿﺮ وﯾﮋگی­ﻫﺎی ژنتیکی ﻧﯿﺰ ﻗﺮار دارﻧﺪ. ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﯾﮏ ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﮐﻠﯽ، ﭼﺮﺑﯽ مازاد در ﺑﺪن در ﻧﺘﯿﺠﻪ ﻋﺪم ﺗﻌﺎدل ﻃﻮﻻﻧﯽ ﻣﺪت ﺑﯿﻦ درﯾﺎفت اﻧﺮژی و ﻫﺰﯾﻨﻪ اﻧﺮژی ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯽ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ میﺷﻮد. انتخاب مناسب تمرینات بدنی، عاملی مهم در تغییر شیوه زندگی کودکان و نوجوانان چاق و شاخصی موثر در کنترل و درمان چاقی محسوب می­شود.
نتیجه گیری: فعالیت بدنی موجب ایجاد یک تعادل منفی در انرژی می­شود، این رویداد به دلیل افزایش مصرف انرژی است. پژوهش­های اخیر نشان می­دهد تمرین تناوبی با شدت بالا (HIIT)، یک وضعیت بی اشتهایی زودگذر ایجاد می­کند که برای مدت کمی پس از فعالیت ورزشی احساس گرسنگی را به تعویق می­اندازد، اما این اثر کوتاه مدت است. از سوی دیگر HIIT در تغییر انرژی مصرفی از طریق تغییر در سیگنال­های گرسنگی و اشتهایی و همچنین پپتیدهای تنظیمی در سطوح سیگنال­های کوتاه تا بلند مدت افراد چاق نقش دارد، از در این مقاله مروری اثر بخشی HIIT در افراد چاق گزارش شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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